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Thinkwell's Biology compatible with AP®*

Emmy Award-winning teacher George Wolfe's excitement for teaching biology is obvious from the first second of the first video. You can benefit from the best AP® Biology teacher taking you step-by-step through the fundamentals and advanced concepts of biology. You'll be ready to remember everything you'll need for the high-stakes AP® Biology exam.

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Thinkwell's AP Biology Author, George Wolfe

Learn from award-winning scientist and author George Wolfe

It's like having a world-class instructor right by your side.

  • Founder and director of Loudoun Academy of Science
  • Emmy-winning television host of "Homework Hotline" on PBS
  • The Shell Award recipient for Outstanding Science Educator
Thinkwell's Biology compatible with AP® Table of Contents
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1. Evolution

1.1 Unity and Diversity of Life on Earth
1.1.1 Properties of Life
1.2 Early Perspectives in Science
1.2.1 An Introduction to Biology
1.2.2 The Nature of Science: The Story of Darwin
1.2.3 Early Scientific Thought
1.2.4 The Emerging Science of Geology
1.3 An Introduction to Evolution
1.3.1 Linnaeus, Buffon, and Lamarck
1.3.2 Darwin: The Voyage Continues
1.3.3 Darwin: More Observations
1.4 Evolution: The Theory of Natural Selection
1.4.1 Darwin: The Theory of Natural Selection
1.4.2 The Theory of Natural Selection
1.4.3 Contrasting Lamarck and Darwin
1.4.4 Contrasting Lamarck and Darwin, Part II
1.5 Fossils and Evolution
1.5.1 Fossil Formation, Dating, and Indexing
1.5.2 The Fossil Record
1.5.3 Some Fossil Surprises
1.5.4 The Coevolution of Horses and Plants
1.5.5 Mass Extinctions: An Asteroid Can Ruin Your Day
1.6 Human Evolution
1.6.1 Human Evolution: What Is a Primate?
1.6.2 Human Evolution: The Family Tree
1.6.3 Human Evolution: The Fossil Record
1.7 Evidence for Evolution
1.7.1 Evidence for Evolution: Biochemical Similarities
1.7.2 Evidence for Evolution: Vestigial Structures
1.7.3 Homologous Structures
1.8 Species Concepts
1.8.1 Species Concepts
1.8.2 Speciation
1.8.3 Prezygotic Reproductive Isolation
1.8.4 Postzygotic Reproductive Isolation
1.9 Examples of Artificial and Natural Selection
1.9.1 Artificial Selection in Action
1.9.2 Natural Selection in Action
1.10 The Origin of Life
1.10.1 History of Life: The Heterotroph Hypothesis: An Overview
1.10.2 The Heterotroph Hypothesis: An Introduction
1.10.3 The Origin of Life: Life from Nonlife
1.10.4 The Heterotroph Hypothesis: Protobionts
1.10.5 The Heterotroph Hypothesis: The First Genetic Material
1.10.6 The Origin of Life: The Rest of the Story
1.11 Classifying Life
1.11.1 The Linnaean System
1.11.2 The Linnaean System: Still Changing

2. Inorganic and Organic Chemistry

2.1 An Introduction to Atoms
2.1.1 Atomic Structure: SPONCH and the Atom
2.1.2 Electrons, Orbitals, and Electron Shells
2.1.3 Ions, Ionization, and Isotopes
2.1.4 Isotopes: Unraveling Photosynthesis
2.2 Atoms and Bonding
2.2.1 Bonding and Electronegativity
2.2.2 Ionic and Covalent Bonds
2.2.3 Polar Covalent Bonds, Hydrogen Bonds, and Van der Waals Interactions
2.3 Properties of Water
2.3.1 Water: Hydrogen Bonding, Solubility, and Specific Heat
2.3.2 Water: Adhesion, Cohesion, and a Solid That Floats
2.3.3 Water: Hydrophilic and Hydrophobic Substances
2.3.4 Dissociation of Water and the pH Scale
2.3.5 Hemoglobin as a Buffer
2.4 Carbon Chemistry
2.4.1 Carbon Chemistry and Isomers
2.4.2 Functional Side Groups
2.5 Carbohydrates
2.5.1 Carbohydrates: Monosaccharides
2.5.2 Dehydration Synthesis and Hydrolysis: Disaccharides
2.5.3 Polysaccharides: Energy Storage Molecules
2.5.4 Polysaccharides: Structural Molecules
2.6 Lipids and Nucleic Acids
2.6.1 Lipids: An Introduction
2.6.2 Saturated vs. Unsaturated Fats
2.6.3 Phospholipids, Waxes, and Steroids
2.6.4 Nucleic Acids: An Introduction to Genetic Material
2.7 Proteins
2.7.1 Proteins: Amino Acids and the Peptide Bond
2.7.2 Amino Acids: The R Groups
2.7.3 Primary and Secondary Structure
2.7.4 Tertiary Structure
2.7.5 Quaternary Structure
2.7.6 Protein Structure: A Summary
2.8 Enzymes
2.8.1 Bioenergetics: The Laws of Thermodynamics
2.8.2 Activation Energy
2.8.3 Enzyme Characteristics
2.9 Enzyme Action
2.9.1 Enzyme Action: The Induced-Fit Model
2.9.2 Enzyme Regulation: Allosteric Regulation
2.9.3 Feedback Inhibition and Cooperativity

3. Cell Biology

3.1 An Introduction to Cell Biology
3.1.1 The History of Cytology
3.1.2 Prokaryotes vs. Eukaryotes
3.1.3 Plant and Animal Cell Overview: The Basics
3.1.4 Membranes: Basic Structure
3.1.5 The Nuclear Envelope: The Initial Tour
3.1.6 Nuclear Function: Who's in Charge?
3.2 Membrane-Bound Organelles
3.2.1 Cellular Function: Endoplasmic Reticulum
3.2.2 Cell Function: Golgi Apparatus
3.2.3 Food Vacuole Formation: The Role of the Lysosome
3.2.4 Still More Vacuoles and Peroxisomes
3.2.5 Mitochondria: Welcome Guests
3.2.6 The Origin of Mitochondria and Chloroplasts
3.3 The Cytoskeleton
3.3.1 The Cytoskeleton: Basic Components
3.3.2 Centrioles, Flagella, and Cilia
3.3.3 Cell Walls
3.4 The Plasma Membrane
3.4.1 Plasma Membrane: The Extracellular Matrix
3.4.2 The Plasma Membrane: The Fluid-Mosaic Model
3.4.3 Proteins as the Mosaic of the Cell Membrane
3.4.4 Animal Cell Junctions
3.5 Cell Transport
3.5.1 Simple and Facilitated Diffusion
3.5.2 Passive Transport: Osmosis
3.5.3 Active Transport: Ion Pumps and Cotransport
3.5.4 Active Transport: The Sodium-Potassium Pump
3.5.5 Energy-Requiring Transport: Endocytosis and Exocytosis
3.6 Tools for Cell Biology
3.6.1 Tools of the Cytologist: Light and Fluorescent Microscopy
3.6.2 Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscopes
3.6.3 Freeze Fracture and Differential Centrifugation
3.7 The Evolution of Metabolic Functions
3.7.1 Major Modes of Nutrition Among Organisms

4. Respiration

4.1 An Introduction to Respiration
4.1.1 ATP Structure and Function
4.1.2 Phosphorylated Intermediates
4.1.3 Respiration: An Overview
4.1.4 Redox: A Brief Review
4.1.5 Energy Release from Sugar: A Demo
4.1.6 Coenzymes: The Role of NAD+
4.2 Glycolysis and Fermentation
4.2.1 Glycolysis: The Initial Steps: Energy Input
4.2.2 Glycolysis: The Energy Payoff
4.2.3 Anaerobic Respiration: The Fermentation of Pyruvate
4.3 Aerobic Respiration
4.3.1 Aerobic Respiration: The Acetyl CoA Step
4.3.2 Aerobic Respiration: The Krebs Cycle
4.3.3 Glycolysis and the Krebs Cycle
4.4 The Electron Transport Chain and Oxidative Phosphorylation
4.4.1 The Electron Transport Chain
4.4.2 Oxidative Phosphorylation
4.4.3 ATP Yield from Aerobic Respiration
4.4.4 Other Fuels in Respiration
4.4.5 The Evolution of Glycolysis

5. Photosynthesis

5.1 Discovering Photosynthesis
5.1.1 The Unraveling of Photosynthesis: A Historical Perspective
5.1.2 Photosynthesis: Twentieth-Century Breakthroughs
5.1.3 Photosynthesis: The Final Picture
5.2 Adaptations for Photosynthesis
5.2.1 The Leaf: Adaptations for Photosynthesis
5.2.2 The Structure of a Chloroplast
5.2.3 Photosynthetic Pigments
5.2.4 The Nature of Light
5.2.5 Photoexcitation and Electron Transfer
5.3 The Light Reactions
5.3.1 The Light Reactions: An Introduction
5.3.2 Photosystem 1
5.3.3 Photosystem 2
5.3.4 The Light Reactions: A Summary
5.4 The Dark Reactions
5.4.1 The Calvin Cycle
5.4.2 The Calvin Cycle: RuBP Regeneration
5.4.3 A Review of Photosynthesis
5.5 Photorespiration
5.5.1 Photorespiration
5.5.2 C4 Plants and CAM Plants
5.5.3 The Evolution of Photosynthesis

6. Molecular Genetics

6.1 Discovering DNA
6.1.1 Molecular Genetics: The Protein vs. DNA Debate
6.1.2 Continuing to Link Genes to Chemicals: Muller, Beadle, and Tatum
6.1.3 Griffith and Transformation
6.1.4 Avery, MacLeod and McCarty/Hershey and Chase: DNA Wins!
6.1.5 Chargaff and Franklin and Wilkins: The DNA Story Begins
6.2 DNA Structure Revealed
6.2.1 Watson and Crick: The Clues
6.2.2 Watson and Crick: The Double Helix
6.3 Introduction to DNA Replication
6.3.1 Replication: Meselson and Stahl
6.3.2 DNA: Polymerization with Triphosphate Nucleotides
6.4 Events of DNA Replication
6.4.1 Events at the Replication Fork: The Leading Strand
6.4.2 Events at the Leading Strand, Part II
6.4.3 Events at the Replication Fork: The Lagging Strand
6.4.4 Proofreading, End Replication, and Telomeres
6.4.5 DNA Replication: A Summary
6.5 Transcription
6.5.1 Transcription and Translation: An Overview
6.5.2 Transcription: RNA Formation from the DNA Template
6.5.3 Transcription: Termination and RNA Protection
6.5.4 Posttranscriptional Modification/RNA Splicing
6.6 Translation
6.6.1 Translation: Ribosomal and Transfer RNA
6.6.2 The Role of Transfer RNA: Charging a tRNA Molecule
6.6.3 Translation: Initiation Events
6.6.4 Translation/Elongation: The Initiation of Elongation
6.6.5 Elongation Continued and Termination
6.7 Protein Synthesis Review
6.7.1 Polypeptide Destinations: Signal Peptides and ER Ribosomes
6.7.2 Protein Synthesis: An Overview
6.8 The lac Operon
6.8.1 Control Mechanisms: Lactose Metabolism in E. coli
6.8.2 Jacob and Monod's Model: The lac Operon
6.8.3 lac Operon: The Summary
6.9 Eukaryotic Genomic Organization
6.9.1 The Eukaryotic Genome: DNA Packing
6.9.2 Eukaryotic Genomic Organization: Repetitive DNA
6.9.3 Eukaryotic Genomic Organization: Gene Families
6.9.4 Eukaryotic Genomic Organization: Transposons and Amplified Genes
6.10 Controlling Protein Synthesis in Eukaryotes
6.10.1 Eukaryotic Gene Control: Transcriptional Controls
6.10.2 Eukaryotic Control Mechanisms: Posttranscriptional and Posttranslational Controls
6.10.3 Prokaryotes vs. Eukaryotes: Protein-Making Machinery

7. Biotechnology

7.1 Plasmids and Gene Cloning
7.1.1 Biotechnology: Plasmids in Prokaryotes
7.1.2 Using a Restriction Enzyme to Create a Vector
7.1.3 Biotechnology: Gene Cloning
7.1.4 Biotechnology: Detection of Cell Clones
7.2 Techniques in Biotechnology
7.2.1 Biotechnology: Reverse Transcriptase: A Tool Taken from Viruses
7.2.2 Using Reverse Transcriptase to Make cDNA
7.2.3 Electrophoresis: Separating DNA
7.2.4 Sequencing DNA: The Sanger Method
7.3 More Techniques in Biotechnology
7.3.1 Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphisms: Genetic Markers
7.3.2 Polymerase Chain Reaction: DNA Amplification
7.3.3 DNA Fingerprinting
7.3.4 Southern Blotting
7.3.5 Detecting DNA Homology: A Biotechnology Summary
7.4 Human Genome Project
7.4.1 The Human Gene Pool
7.4.2 The Human Genome Project: Recent Findings
7.4.3 The Human Genome Project: Applications

8. Cell Reproduction

8.1 An Introduction to the Cell Cycle and Mitosis
8.1.1 The Eukaryotic Cell Cycle
8.1.2 Mitosis: An Overview
8.1.3 Mitosis: The Phases
8.1.4 Cytokinesis
8.2 Regulating Mitosis
8.2.1 Cell-Cycle Regulation: Protein Kinases
8.2.2 Cell-Cycle Regulation: Other Mechanisms
8.2.3 Cancer: When Mitosis Goes Unchecked
8.2.4 The ras Gene and the p53 Gene
8.3 Meiosis
8.3.1 Sexual Reproduction and the Role of Meiosis
8.3.2 Homologous Chromosomes: Thanks, Mom and Dad!
8.3.3 Meiosis: Prophase I
8.3.4 Disjunction and Meiosis II
8.3.5 Mitosis vs. Meiosis
8.4 Understanding Meiosis
8.4.1 Independent Assortment
8.4.2 Spermatogenesis: Meiosis in Males
8.4.3 Oogenesis: Meiosis in Females

9. Mendelian Genetics and Mutation

9.1 Gregor Mendel
9.1.1 Heredity: The Story of Gregor Mendel
9.1.2 Mendel's Findings: A First Look at Phenotypic Ratios
9.1.3 Mendel's Conclusions: Alternate Alleles and Dominance
9.1.4 Mendel's Conclusions: Segregation and Recombination
9.2 The Laws of Mendelian Inheritance
9.2.1 Determining Heterozygosity: Test Crosses and Back Crosses
9.2.2 Mendelian Inheritance
9.3 Segregation and Independent Assortment
9.3.1 Segregation and Independent Assortment
9.3.2 Independent Assortment: An Explanation
9.4 Laws of Probability
9.4.1 Laws of Probability: Rule of Multiplication
9.4.2 The Multiplicative Law: Some Extensions
9.4.3 Laws of Probability: The Additive Rule
9.4.4 Using the Laws of Probability in Dihybrid Crosses
9.5 Genetic Dominance
9.5.1 What Is a Dominant Gene? Intermediate Inheritance
9.5.2 Codominance and Multiple Alleles: ABO Blood Genes
9.5.3 ABO Blood Groups: Inheritance Patterns and Pedigree Charts
9.6 Epistasis
9.6.1 Epistasis: One Gene Affecting Another
9.6.2 The Bombay Phenotype: Infidelity or Epistasis?
9.7 Inheritance Patterns
9.7.1 Polygenic Inheritance
9.7.2 Pleiotropy: Multiple Phenotypic Effects
9.7.3 Sickle Cell Anemia: The Case against Dominant and Recessive
9.8 Linked Genes and Genetic Mapping
9.8.1 Linked Genes
9.8.2 Crossing Over and Recombination: A Tool for Mapping Genes
9.8.3 Gene Mapping Using Recombination Frequencies
9.8.4 Linking Genes to Chromosomes: The Work of Morgan
9.8.5 Morgan's Conclusions
9.9 Sex Linkage and Pedigree Charts
9.9.1 Sex-Linked Traits in Humans
9.9.2 X Inactivation in Humans
9.9.3 The Use of Pedigree Charts to Determine Possible Genotypes
9.9.4 Pedigree Chart: Problem Review
9.10 Problems in Heredity
9.10.1 Problems in Heredity
9.10.2 Problems in Heredity: Chromosomal Aberrations
9.10.3 Translocations: 14/21 Downs
9.11 Genetic Mutation
9.11.1 Genetic Mutation
9.11.2 Genetic Mutation: Different Forms of Point Mutations
9.11.3 Genetic Mutation: Insertion and Deletion
9.11.4 Genetic Screening

10. Population Genetics and Evolution

10.1 The Hardy-Weinberg Theory
10.1.1 Population Genetics: Darwin Meets Mendel
10.1.2 An Introduction to Hardy-Weinberg Theory
10.1.3 The Hardy-Weinberg Equation
10.1.4 Using the Hardy-Weinberg Theory
10.1.5 Using the Hardy-Weinberg Theory II
10.1.6 Hardy-Weinberg: What Does This Have to Do with Evolution?
10.2 Departing From Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
10.2.1 Microevolution by Genetic Drift
10.2.2 Microevolution: Continued
10.3 Variations in Populations and Modes of Selection
10.3.1 Variations Within and Between Populations
10.3.2 Modes of Selection
10.3.3 The Perfect Organism
10.4 Speciation
10.4.1 Speciation: What Is a Species?
10.4.2 Allopatric Speciation
10.4.3 Sympatric Speciation
10.5 Evolution
10.5.1 Time Frame for Evolution: Gradualism vs. Punctuated Equilibrium

11. The Evolution of Life on Earth

11.1 Classifying Earth's Organisms
11.1.1 Classifying the Products of Evolution: Taxonomy
11.1.2 Building a Cladogram
11.1.3 Molecular Methods for Classifying Organisms
11.1.4 A Phylogenetic Tree of Organisms: A Three-Domain System
11.2 Domain Archaea
11.2.1 The Archaea
11.3 Domain Bacteria
11.3.1 The Bacteria
11.4 Protists and the Origin of the Eukaryota
11.4.1 Protists: Archaezoa and Euglenozoa
11.4.2 Protists: Alveolata and Stramenopila
11.5 The Colonization of Land by Plants
11.5.1 Plant Phylogeny: The Colonization of Land
11.5.2 Plant Phylogeny and Alternation of Generations
11.6 Alternation of Generations: Mosses, Ferns, and Gymnosperms
11.6.1 Alternation of Generations: Mosses
11.6.2 Alternation of Generations: Ferns
11.6.3 Alternation of Generations: Gymnosperms
11.7 Angiosperms
11.7.1 Alternation of Generations: The Structure of a Flower
11.7.2 Alternation of Generations: Angiosperms
11.7.3 Embryogenesis in Angiosperms: Dicots and Monocots
11.8 Fungi
11.8.1 Introduction to the Fungi
11.8.2 Diversity of Fungi
11.9 Evolution of the Animal Kingdom
11.9.1 Constructing a Phylogenetic Tree of Animals: Animal Development
11.9.2 Developmental Data for the Phylogenetic Tree of Animals
11.9.3 The Formation of Body Cavities
11.9.4 Protostomes and Deuterostomes
11.9.5 Animal Diversity: The Cambrian Explosion and the Move to Land
11.10 Invertebrates
11.10.1 Introduction to Animals: Parazoa and Radiata
11.10.2 Animals: Acoelomates, Pseudocoelomates, and Coelomates
11.10.3 Diversity of Protostome Species
11.11 Deuterostomes
11.11.1 Diversity of Deuterostome Species
11.11.2 Diversity of Vertebrate Species
11.12 Chordate Development
11.12.1 Animal Development: A Close-up Look at Fertilization Events
11.12.2 Cleavage, Gastrulation, and Organogenesis: A Closer Look
11.12.3 Events of Gastrulation and Organogenesis
11.13 The Cellular and Molecular Basis of Development
11.13.1 Pattern Formation in Drosophila
11.13.2 Pattern Formation in Drosophila, continued
11.14 Viruses and Prions
11.14.1 Viruses and Prions: Living or Nonliving?

12. Animal Systems and Homeostasis

12.1 Introduction to Animal Systems and Homeostasis
12.1.1 Animal Homeostasis
12.1.2 Mechanisms of Homeostasis
12.1.3 Animal Tissues: Epithelial Tissue
12.1.4 Animal Tissues: Loose Connective Tissue
12.1.5 Animal Tissues: Dense, Fluid, and Supportive Connective Tissue
12.1.6 Animal Tissue: Muscle and Nerve Tissue
12.2 The Skeletal System
12.2.1 The Structure of Bone
12.3 The Digestive System
12.3.1 Introduction to the Digestive System
12.3.2 The Beginning of Chemical Digestion
12.3.3 Chemical Digestion in the Small Intestine
12.3.4 Human Nutrition: Absorption
12.3.5 The Fate of Absorbed Nutrients
12.3.6 Egestion
12.4 Gas Exchange and Transport Systems
12.4.1 Introduction to the Gas Exchange of Animals
12.4.2 Human Gas Exchange System
12.4.3 Human Gas Exchange: The Roles of Respiratory Pigments
12.4.4 Carbon Dioxide Transport
12.4.5 Structure of the Human Heart
12.5 Circulation
12.5.1 Maintaining the Human Heartbeat
12.5.2 Human Circulation: Blood Vessels
12.6 Blood Pressure and Clotting
12.6.1 Human Circulation: Blood Pressure
12.6.2 Blood Clotting
12.7 Human Excretion
12.7.1 Human Excretion: Waste Processing
12.7.2 Human Excretion: Urinary System Structure
12.7.3 The Nephron: Blood Filtration and Urine Production
12.8 The Immune System: An Introduction
12.8.1 The Immune Response: Nonspecific Defenses
12.8.2 The Immune System: Structure and Function
12.8.3 Immunity: Clonal Selection Theory
12.8.4 Immune Response: An Overview
12.8.5 T Cells: Helper T Activation
12.8.6 T Cells: Helper and Cytotoxic T Cell Effects
12.9 The Immune System Continued
12.9.1 B Cells: The Humoral Response
12.9.2 Antibodies and DNA Rearrangement
12.9.3 Antibody Mechanisms
12.10 HIV and the Immune System
12.10.1 HIV: An Attack on the Immune System
12.11 The Endocrine System
12.11.1 Human Regulation: Endocrine Control and Signal-Transduction Pathways
12.11.2 The Endocrine System
12.11.3 Endocrine Function: Oscillations in Hormone Levels
12.12 The Ovarian and Uterine Cycles
12.12.1 The Ovarian and Uterine Cycles: Preparation for Pregnancy
12.12.2 Hormonal Events during the Female Reproductive Cycle
12.13 The Nervous System
12.13.1 The Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems and the Neuron
12.13.2 Human Regulation: Nervous System: Nerve Function and Reflexes
12.14 The Nerve Impulse
12.14.1 Human Regulation: The Nerve Impulse: General Events
12.14.2 Human Regulation: The Nervous System and the Action Potential
12.14.3 Human Regulation: Synaptic Events: Cell-Cell Communication
12.14.4 The Nervous System: A Phylogenetic Perspective
12.14.5 The Human Brain
12.14.6 Processing Centers of the Human Brain
12.15 Motor Mechanisms
12.15.1 Motor Control: Muscle Microstructure
12.15.2 The Neuromuscular Junction: The Contraction Is Triggered
12.15.3 The Sliding Filament: Interaction of ATP, Actin, Myosin, and Calcium
12.15.4 Muscle Structure and Action
12.16 Sensory Reception
12.16.1 Sensory Systems: An Introduction
12.16.2 Photoreceptors and the Vertebrate Eye
12.16.3 The Ear and Equilibrium
12.16.4 The Ear and Hearing

13. Plant Systems and Homeostasis

13.1 Plant Development
13.1.1 Plant Development: Germination
13.1.2 Plant Development: Cell Structure and Function
13.1.3 Primary Growth: Root Growth and Development
13.1.4 Primary Growth: Stem Growth and Development
13.1.5 Secondary Growth: Lateral Meristems and Secondary Vascular Tissue
13.2 Plant Hormones
13.2.1 Regulation in Plants
13.2.2 Plant Hormones
13.2.3 Signal Transduction Pathways in Plants
13.3 Photoperiodism
13.3.1 Photoperiodism in Plants: Control of Flowering
13.3.2 Phytochromes and the Photoperiodic Response
13.4 Plant Transport
13.4.1 Transport in Angiosperms: Transpiration
13.4.2 The Role of Xylem Tissue and Stomata
13.4.3 Plant Transport: Absorption and Lateral Transport in Roots
13.4.4 Phloem: The Movement of Sap

14. Ecology

14.1 Introduction to Ecology
14.1.1 Ecological Organization: The Functional Divisions of the Ecologist
14.2 Biomes
14.2.1 Land Biomes: An Overview
14.2.2 Terrestrial Biomes: Water-Limited Environments
14.2.3 Aquatic Biomes
14.3 Animal Behavior
14.3.1 Ecology at the Level of the Species: Behavior
14.3.2 Imprinting and Innate Behavior
14.3.3 Nature vs. Nurture: Is There a Genetic Basis for Behaviors?
14.4 Competitive and Courtship Behaviors
14.4.1 Competitive Behaviors and Survivability
14.4.2 Courtship and Mating Behaviors: Survivability
14.5 Population Ecology
14.5.1 Population Ecology: Populations with Unlimited Resources
14.5.2 Population Ecology: The Reality of Limited Resources
14.5.3 Population Ecology: Population Strategy: r vs. K
14.5.4 Population Ecology: Intraspecific Competition
14.6 Community Ecology: Interspecific Interactions
14.6.1 Community Ecology: Interspecific Interaction: Predation
14.6.2 Interspecific Competition: Ecological Niches
14.6.3 Interspecific Associations: Symbiosis
14.7 Community Ecology: Succession
14.7.1 Community Disturbance: Succession
14.7.2 Secondary Succession
14.8 Community Ecology: Species Diversity
14.8.1 The Decline in Species Diversity and the Current Mass Extinction
14.9 Energy Flow in an Ecosystem
14.9.1 Ecosystems: A Flow of Energy
14.9.2 Ecosystems: Productivity and Energy Flow
14.9.3 Productivity Pyramids: Visualizing Energy Flows
14.9.4 Productivity Pyramids: Pyramid of Numbers
14.10 Chemical Cycling in the Ecosystem
14.10.1 Ecosystems and Material Cycles: Water, Carbon, and Sulfur
14.10.2 Ecosystems and Material Cycles: Nitrogen and Phosphorus Cycles
14.11 Human Effect on the Ecosystem
14.11.1 The Effects of Human Population Growth: Lake Eutrophication
14.11.2 Toxic Accumulation and Ozone Depletion
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Is Thinkwell Biology compatible with AP® certified by the College Board®?

The College Board® states at their website: “The AP Course Audit process is designed to review AP courses in their entirety, so only schools (whether brick-and-mortar or virtual) can submit course syllabi for review.” Since Thinkwell is a publisher and not a school, our materials can’t be certified. We strive to make this distinction, which is why you see this statement: AP® is a registered trademark of the College Board, which was not involved in its production. This course is designed for self-study preparation for the AP® exam and has not been audited by the College Board®.

Does my student get school credit for Thinkwell Biology?

No, only schools are accredited and Thinkwell is not a school, though many accredited schools use Thinkwell. Getting AP® credit is accomplished by taking the AP exam®.

What if my student needs access to the course for more than 12 months?

You can extend your subscription for $19.95/month.

Can I share access with more than one student?

The courses are designed and licensed to accommodate one student per username and password; additional students need to purchase online access. This allows parents to keep track of each student's progress and grades.

How long does it take to complete Thinkwell Biology?

The pace of your course is up to you, but most students will schedule two semesters.

Can I see my grade?

Thinkwell courses track everything your student does. When logged in, your student can click "My Grades" to see their progress.

How are grades calculated?

The course grade is calculated this way: Chapter Tests 33.3%, Midterm: 33.3%, Final: 33.3%.

What is acceptable performance on the exams?

As a homeschool parent, you decide the level of performance you want your student to achieve; the course does not limit access to topics based on performance on prior topics.

Can I get a transcript?

Yes, there's a final grade report print option in the My Grades section. Contact with any questions.

What if I change my mind and want to do a different course, can I change?

If you discover that you should be in a different course, contact within one week of purchase and we will move you to the appropriate course.

Can I print the exercises?

Yes, but completing the exercises online provides immediate correct answer feedback and automatic scoring, so we recommend answering the exercises online.

Are exercises multiple choice?

The exercises are multiple choice and they are graded automatically with correct answer solutions.

What is Thinkwell's Refund Policy?

We offer a full refund of 12-month subscription purchases within 14 days of purchase, no questions asked. For Essential Review courses, the refund period is 3 days. Optional printed materials are printed on demand and the sales are final.

How does my school review this course?

Should your school need to review a Thinkwell course for any reason, have the school contact and we can provide them access to a demo site.

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